Support the implementation of parking policy reforms, including off-street standards applying to new developments, on-street management, e-bike parking, pricing, setbacks, enforcement, new technology, and zoning. Document and promote best practices in all these areas, and the impacts of parking improvements, as part of a strategic communications program to promote replication to other cities. Combine parking improvements with BRT zoning related TOD plans and policies. Document best practices in other TDM areas including ride sharing/sourcing, urban freight, e-bike weight and speed limits, low emission and car-free zones, and vehicle registration restrictions.
ITDP-China assists several city governments with planning on-street parking systems and reforming off-street parking regulations. Advice is given on parking zones, parking fees, technology, organizational and financial issues and policies. Following ITDP’s support and advice, Lanzhou implemented on-street parking zones with sharply increased parking prices in 2012, Guangzhou increased parking prices and introduced a zone system, and Yichang removed setback parking in large sections of the BRT corridor. ITDP is advising Chinese cities to change from parking minimum standards for new developments to parking maximum standards or caps. Shenzhen has applied the first substantive 'parking cap' in new developments around metro stations.
Transport Demand Management or TDM work more broadly includes parking, enforcement measures, vehicle registration restrictions, issues and policies related to e-bikes, traffic circulation and pedestrianization, urban freight movement, and documentation of best practices in all these areas.
In late 2015 ITDP-China provided intensive input to parking projects and policies in Tianjin, focusing on on-street parking management improvements in Heping District in the city center, and in documenting parking best practices in Shenzhen. The Shenzhen best practice documentation is still in process and includes an off-street parking cap for new developments and a new on-street parking management system. Best practices in TDM related to enforcement, pedestrian crossings, and zoning are also being prepared.
With a study commissioned by the Asian Development Bank, ITDP China worked with the Beijing Transport Research Center, under the Communications Commission of the Beijing Municipal Government, on on- and off-street parking reform recommendations. Parking reform is being planned in Xicheng district and ITDP’s recommendations were well-received. The parking study, available in English and Chinese, can be downloadedhere.
Parking work in Guangzhou has successfully influenced policy development resulting in Guangzhou implementing a zonal system for on-street parking, and (as of August 2014) the highest on-street parking prices in China. Substantial input has been provided to off-street parking policy as well, but so far without successful implementation. A parking study was also carried out along the BRT corridor in 2010, showing how parking can be removed from setbacks along the corridor. The recommendations have been partially implemented.
Parking work in Yichang focuses on parking policy reform and also on BRT station area development, since parking is a key factor affecting TOD issues along the BRT corridor. This work is ongoing.
ITDP-China's parking work in Lanzhou took place primarily in 2012, and was successful in convincing the city to introduce a major on-street parking reform in 2013. Paid parking was introduced in the city center, with higher prices in more central areas.
Parking work in Jakarta has supported the ITDP-Indonesia office in developed proposed parking policy reforms and demonstration projects.
ITDP-China's parking work in Vientiane in 2014 has initiated a major ongoing parking reform in the city, including policy measures and projects related to both on-street and off-street parking. A loan for a parking project, as well as the implementation of BRT, bike sharing and NMT improvements, was approved in March 2015.
Parking input has been provided in several other cities, though not as intensively as those listed above. These include Johor Bahru, Foshan, Tianjin, Beijing, and Harbin. In Harbin's Songbei District ITDP developed a methodology to analyze trip generation from a projected population and mode share target, and show that the current minimum parking standards would result in a level of parking provision ten times higher than what is needed.